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“…In this regard, in order for laboratory practices to continue efficiently, teacher's approach, practice-oriented views and opinions are of paramount importance. In addition, literature suggests that pre-service teachers experience problems about technological pedagogical content knowledge [19]. For this reason, in laboratory-based science teaching, teachers are required to have technological and pedagogical content knowledge and skills in their fields to follow innovations, to supplement their teaching in classrooms and to motivate their students [10].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…In this regard, in order for laboratory practices to continue efficiently, teacher's approach, practice-oriented views and opinions are of paramount importance. In addition, literature suggests that pre-service teachers experience problems about technological pedagogical content knowledge [19]. For this reason, in laboratory-based science teaching, teachers are required to have technological and pedagogical content knowledge and skills in their fields to follow innovations, to supplement their teaching in classrooms and to motivate their students [10].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…These are daunting requirements even for trained science teachers because teaching enquiry-based science requires 'a myriad of constantly changing teacher roles that demands more active and complex participation than that suggested by the commonly used metaphor of teacher as facilitator' (Crawford 2000, 935;Crawford 2007). It is therefore unsurprising that enquirybased work is regarded as one of the most challenging tasks for many primary teachers, and is frequently avoided or taught ineffectually (Kim and Tan 2011). Lack of confidence, coupled with low levels of curricular expertise, can result in enquiry-based science equated to i.)…”
Section: Background Literaturementioning
“…Furthermore, lack of confidence can lead to a lowering of self-efficacy and create a vicious circle in which the teacher's sense of competence is reduced so that they may avoid teaching science or adopt teacher-led and controlled pedagogies that leave little room for student autonomy and active engagement in science (Appleton 1995;Kim and Tan 2011;Palmer, 2004). However, if this cycle can be broken by teachers relinquishing control, or 'letting go' they may become more enthusiastic and confident about teaching science.…”
Section: Background Literaturementioning
“…Contudo, segundo diversos autores, tal mudança tem enfrentado alguns entraves da parte dos professores, uns porque receiam perder o controlo da sala de aula (Kim & Tan, 2011) e outros porque consideram que os alunos não são capazes de realizar atividades de investigação (Keys & Bryan, 2001). Os obstáculos ao ensino por investigação acentuam-se no 1.º CEB porque frequentemente estes professores possuem um conhecimento débil dos conteúdos (Harlen & Holroyd, 1997) e a ideia de que o ensino de ciências é pouco relevante neste nível de ensino (Abell & McDonald, 2006).…”
Section: Introductionunclassified
“…A realização de exames no 1.º CEB centrados unicamente nos conteúdos da matemática e da literacia tem também contribuído para reforçar a ideia errada de que as ciên-cias não são tão importantes quanto os outros conteúdos e consequentemente, os professores reduzem o tempo letivo dedicado às ciências (Kim & Tan, 2011). O ensino por investigação em ciências no 1.º CEB não retira tempo às outras áreas de conteúdo, muito pelo contrário, promove a interdisciplinaridade (Abell & McDonald, 2006).…”
Section: Introductionunclassified