2019 **Abstract:** The wave-particle duality of light introduces two fundamental problems to imaging, namely, the diffraction limit and the photon shot noise. Quantum information theory can tackle them both in one holistic formalism: model the light as a quantum object, consider any quantum measurement, and pick the one that gives the best statistics. While Helstrom pioneered the theory half a century ago and first applied it to incoherent imaging, it was not until recently that the approach offered a genuine surprise on the age…

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“…On the practical side, the theory may be accused of assuming ideal conditions for both measurements, such as infinitesimal pixels for direct imaging, the availability of infinitely many modes for SPADE, perfect specification and knowledge of the optical systems, and the absence of excess noise. Reality is necessarily uglier, but the results here remain relevant by serving as fundamental limits (via the data-processing inequality [51,68]) and offering insights into the essential physics. The theoretical and experimental progress on SPADE and related methods so far [69][70][71] has provided encouragement that the theory has realistic potential, and the general results here should motivate further research into the wider applications of quantuminspired imaging methods.…”

confidence: 97%

“…An intuitive explanation of the enhancement, as well as a discussion of the limitations of SPADE, can be found in Ref. [51]. The constrained CRB with θ 0 = 1 becomes [O(∆ k ) − θ 2 k ]/N = O(∆ k )/N , which is on the same order of magnitude as the fundamental quantum limit [26].…”

confidence: 98%