1944
DOI: 10.1001/archderm.1944.01510070060010
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Relationship of Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans to Lichen Sclerosus Et Atrophicus

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Cited by 58 publications
(14 citation statements)
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“…At present, the evidence is inconclusive regarding whether BXO is a localized form of LSEA, which occurs on the upper trunk, clavicular and scapular regions, neck, axillae, and forearms as¯at-topped irregular white or yellowishwhite papules. Laymon and Freeman et al found patches of lichen sclerosus on the trunk and limbs in four of six patients with BXO [8]. However, none of the four patients with BXO described by Sta had patches of lichen sclerosus [9].…”
Section: Clinical Featuresmentioning
confidence: 95%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…At present, the evidence is inconclusive regarding whether BXO is a localized form of LSEA, which occurs on the upper trunk, clavicular and scapular regions, neck, axillae, and forearms as¯at-topped irregular white or yellowishwhite papules. Laymon and Freeman et al found patches of lichen sclerosus on the trunk and limbs in four of six patients with BXO [8]. However, none of the four patients with BXO described by Sta had patches of lichen sclerosus [9].…”
Section: Clinical Featuresmentioning
confidence: 95%
“…Histologically, BXO is essentially the same as LSEA [8]. Both are characterized by hyperkeratosis of the epithelium, hydropic degeneration of the basal cells, sclerosis of the subepithelial collagen, dermal lymphocytic in®l-tration, atrophic epidermis with loss of rete pegs, homogenization of the collagen in the upper third of the dermis, and a more or less dense zone of lymphocytes and histiocytes beneath the homogenized collagen (Figs.…”
Section: Histopathologymentioning
confidence: 99%
“…BXO is the other name of the disease Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA). It is basically the male genital form of LSA and is the most common chronic, lymphocyte-mediated skin disease causing glandular urethral stricture [1][2][3][4] of unknown origin. BXO is a rare disease that affects only 6 of 1000 males (0.06%) [5,6].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[1] The commonly involved sites on the male genitalia are meatus followed by prepuce, penile shaft and the glans penis. [2] A few experts consider LS of penis synonymous with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO), [3] but BXO may also be a consequence of other dermatoses that lead to fibrosis, such as cicatricial pemphigoid and lichen planus. [4] The etiology of LS is obscure, but genetic susceptibility including HLA A1, B8, DR3 association, [5] autoimmune mechanisms, [4,6] infective agents like human papillomavirus [7] and spirochaetes, [8] and Koebner phenomenon [1,4] have been postulated as causative factors.…”
Section: Introduction Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%