2019
DOI: 10.1096/fj.201901942r View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Cell membrane potential and inorganic ion distributions are currently viewed from a kinetic electric paradigm, which ignores thermodynamics. The resting membrane potential is viewed as a diffusion potential. The 9 major inorganic ions found in blood plasma (

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“…There are nine major inorganic ions found intracellularly and extracellularly, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , H + , Cl − , HCO 3 − , H 2 PO 4 2- , and HPO 4 − , which regulate plasma membrane potential and osmotic balance [ 99 ]. ATP drives the ion pumps that provide the chemiosmotic potential to maintain the distribution of these ions ( Figure 7 ), preventing edema.…”
Section: Importance Of Energy Metabolism In Blunting the Cytokine mentioning
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“…There are nine major inorganic ions found intracellularly and extracellularly, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , H + , Cl − , HCO 3 − , H 2 PO 4 2- , and HPO 4 − , which regulate plasma membrane potential and osmotic balance [ 99 ]. ATP drives the ion pumps that provide the chemiosmotic potential to maintain the distribution of these ions ( Figure 7 ), preventing edema.…”
Section: Importance Of Energy Metabolism In Blunting the Cytokine mentioning
“…A remarkable finding was the similarity of the DG 0 ATP among cells with widely differing resting membrane potentials and mechanisms of energy production. For example, the DG 0 ATP in heart, liver, and erythrocytes was approximately À56 kJ/mol despite having very different electrical potentials of À86, À56, and À6 mV, respectively (Veech et al, 2019a(Veech et al, , 2019b. Moreover, energy production in the heart and liver, which contain many mitochondria, is largely through OxPhos, whereas energy production in the erythrocyte, which contains no nucleus or mitochondria, is entirely through glycolysis.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Nevertheless, the maintenance of the DG 0 ATP is the endpoint of both genetic and metabolic processes, and any disturbance in this energy balance will compromise cell function and viability (Veech et al, 2001(Veech et al, , 2019b. Although the free energy of ATP hydrolysis is used to power nearly all cellular activities, the majority of energy in any given cell is used to power ionic membrane pumps (Veech et al, 2001(Veech et al, , 2019aSeyfried, 2012b;Hochachka and Somero, 2002;Masuda et al, 2005;Harold, 1986;Seyfried and Mukherjee, 2005). If energy to the cellular pumps is interrupted, the cell begins to swell.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Although the total amount of mitochondrial ATP calculated considers the currently accepted proton stoichiometry for ATP synthesis, ATP/ADP-Pi exchange, respiration, and the malate/aspartate shuttle, the actual ATP yield could be less due to proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix ( Brand, 2005 ; Rich and Marechal, 2010 ; Walker, 2013 ; Wikstrom et al, 2015 ). The relatively low ATP demand for cell division compared to the energy requirements for maintenance of cellular functions, mainly the activity of the Na + -K + ATPase, suggests that ATP generation is not a limiting factor to sustain rapid cell proliferation ( Kilburn et al, 1969 ; Schwenke et al, 1981 ; Veech et al, 2019 ; Seyfried et al, 2020 ). In non-proliferating cells, high VDAC conductance promotes an oxidative metabolism, generating cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios 50–100 times higher compared to mitochondria.…”
Section: Vdac Opening Mitochondrial Metabolism and Warburg Effectmentioning