The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) signaling system consists of MC4R, MC4R ligands [melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), agouti-related protein (AgRP)], and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), and it has been proposed to play important roles in feeding and growth in vertebrates. However, the expression and functionality of this system have not been fully characterized in teleosts. Here, we cloned tilapia MC4R, MRAP2b, AgRPs (AgRP, AgRP2), and POMCs (POMCa1, POMCb) genes and characterized the interaction of tilapia MC4R with MRAP2b, AgRP, α-MSH, and ACTH in vitro. The results indicate the following. (1) Tilapia MC4R, MRAP2b, AgRPs, and POMCs share high amino acid identity with their mammalian counterparts. (2) Tilapia MRAP2b could interact with MC4R expressed in CHO cells, as demonstrated by Co-IP assay, and thus decrease MC4R constitutive activity and enhance its sensitivity to ACTH1-40. (3) As in mammals, AgRP can function as an inverse agonist and antagonist of MC4R, either in the presence or absence of MRAP2b. These data, together with the co-expression of MC4R, MRAP2b, AgRPs, and POMCs in tilapia hypothalamus, suggest that as in mammals, ACTH/α-MSH, AgRP, and MRAP2 can interact with MC4R to control energy balance and thus play conserved roles in the feeding and growth of teleosts.