DOI: 10.1029/2004jd005381
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Abstract: [1] We present a one-dimensional model of a runaway electron avalanche in a thunderstorm electric field. Previous simulations have calculated the ionization rates and energy distribution functions for runaway electrons, for various atmospheric values of E/p, through the solution of the modified relativistic Boltzmann equation. We use the field-and pressure-dependent ionization rates in a hydrodynamic macroscopic treatment. The runaway electron avalanche modeled here includes the production of runaway and low-…

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