2013
DOI: 10.4103/0973-1229.109299
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Abstract: In 1952, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) system of creating, validating, studying and employing a diagnostic system in clinical psychiatric practice was introduced. There have been several updates and revisions to this manual and, regardless of its a theoretical framework, it actually does have a framework and presupposition. Essentially the DSM dictates that all psychiatric disorders are syndromes, or a collection of symptoms that commonly occur together and impair psychosocial… Show more

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Cited by 5 publications
(7 citation statements)
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References 22 publications
(20 reference statements)
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“…These changes in brain function represent endophenotypes and may be scanned and measured via functional brain imaging studies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]). In an effort to homogenize future ADT-based RCTs, researchers may strive to use fMRI procedures during patient recruitment such that patients’ external symptoms (phenotype) and internal brain state descriptors (endophenotype) may be matched upon study entry and the ADT effects are more reliably measured (Schwartz, 2013[34]).…”
Section: Studying Major Depressive Disorder: Insights Of Neuroimagingmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…These changes in brain function represent endophenotypes and may be scanned and measured via functional brain imaging studies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]). In an effort to homogenize future ADT-based RCTs, researchers may strive to use fMRI procedures during patient recruitment such that patients’ external symptoms (phenotype) and internal brain state descriptors (endophenotype) may be matched upon study entry and the ADT effects are more reliably measured (Schwartz, 2013[34]).…”
Section: Studying Major Depressive Disorder: Insights Of Neuroimagingmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Sometimes, symptoms may represent as personality traits that predispose patients to greater interpersonal and social stress that may lead secondarily to MDD development, or perhaps these inherited abnormal proteins may lead directly to depressive symptoms, ie, poor concentration, suicidality, etc. 32 Regardless, the above MAO genetic findings and translational correlations suggest a potential etiology for depressive symptoms in subsets of MDD patients.…”
Section: Mao-a As a Genetic Risk Factor In Major Depressive Disordermentioning
confidence: 99%
“… Of purpose — that of reducing individual and social psychopathology; Of goals — increasing the validity of psychiatric diagnosis even as we have increased its reliability (Insel, 2013[ 9 ]); of unravelling the aetiopathology of psychiatric disorders; finding precision in diagnostics and investigative tests (Singh, 2013[ 18 ]); finding biomarkers; and finding precise therapies for precise disorders that control such disorders; and not just control, but can finally cure them; find methods of primary prevention; identify what makes people healthy, happy, and fulfilled in the face of current world challenges (Cloninger 2013[ 3 ]); propel movement from mental disorder to mental health; and, further, progress to individual actualisation and personal and collective well-being and longevity (Singh, 2010[ 17 ]). Of practice : In therapy : By synergising psychopharmacology with psychotherapy/therapies, social therapies and pharmacogenetics; In diagnostics : By identifying the phenotype-genotype-endophenotype axis (Schwartz, 2013[ 14 ]); and By promoting such a synergy of therapy and diagnostics as brings about, firstly, efficient control, and, finally, cure/primary prevention of psychiatric disorders. …”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“… In therapy : By synergising psychopharmacology with psychotherapy/therapies, social therapies and pharmacogenetics; In diagnostics : By identifying the phenotype-genotype-endophenotype axis (Schwartz, 2013[ 14 ]); and By promoting such a synergy of therapy and diagnostics as brings about, firstly, efficient control, and, finally, cure/primary prevention of psychiatric disorders. …”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%