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“…Higher adiponectin levels may indicate an overly inflammatory status in persons with first-episode psychosis, which contributes to the degenerative process of the brain [138]. Higher levels of prolactin have been found in antipsychotic-naïve persons with first-episode psychosis [136,[142][143][144][145]. This finding indicates that hyperprolactinemia in persons with schizophrenia is not solely secondary to dopamine blockades by antipsychotics, but it reflects the potential intrinsic mechanism of the dopamine-prolactin pathway, which might contribute to both schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome [102,146].…”
Section: Neurotransmitters and Hormones Of Metabolic Syndrome In Anti...mentioning
“…We know that PRL, beside the lactogenic activity, is involved in appetite regulation and plays metabolic actions in both pancreatic and adipose tissue (25), so that hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) could take part in metabolic disorders. Moreover, higher PRL levels have been found in first episode drug-naïve psychotic patients compared to healthy controls; further researches are needed to clarify the relationship between stress, HPRL, and emergence of the psychotic symptoms, also considering the role of confounding factors as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and thyroid stimulating hormone (26)(27)(28). Thyroid dysfunctions are frequently associated in clinical practice with metabolic syndrome (29,30) as well as a relationship exists between HPRL and hypothyroidism, also in children (31).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning