volume 78, issue 2, P186-211 1998
DOI: 10.1177/0032885598078002007
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Abstract: The Chinese practice of productive labor and thought reform in correctional institutions is rooted in Chinese history and culture. It bears influence and reinforcement from the Western prison model of reform and rehabilitation introduced to China at the turn of the 20th century. However, it was not until the communist era that productive labor and thought reform were systematically instituted with a unified ideology and a military-style organization. This article examines productive labor and thought reform i…

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