Experimental gerontology is based on the fundamental assumption that the aging process has a universal character and that the mechanisms of aging are well-conserved among living things. The consequence of this assumption is the use of various organisms, including unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as models in gerontology, and direct extrapolation of the conclusions drawn from the studies carried on these organisms to human beings. However, numerous arguments suggest that aging is not universal and its mechanisms are not conserved in a wide range of species. Instead, senescence can be treated as a side effect of the evolution of specific features for systematic group, unrelated to the passage of time. Hence, depending on the properties of the group, the senescence and proximal causes of death could have a diverse nature. We postulate that the selection of a model organism to explain the mechanism of human aging and human longevity should be preceded by the analysis of its potential to extrapolate the results to a wide group of organisms. Considering that gerontology is a human-oriented discipline and that aging involves complex, systemic changes affecting the entire organism, the object of experimental studies should be animals which are closest relatives of human beings in evolutionary terms, rather than lower organisms, which do not have sufficient complexity in terms of tissues and organ structures.