2005
DOI: 10.1590/s0004-282x2005000400004
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Primitive reflexes and cognitive function

Abstract: -Background: Data on the prevalence of primitive reflexes (PR) in adulthood, their pathological significance and relationship to age and cognition are contro v e r s i a l . Objective: To study the re l a t i o nship between PR and cognition in 30 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 154 control subj e c t s . Method: Diagnosis of probable AD was based on DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA, and CAMDEX criteria. Primitive reflexes were quantified from zero (absent) to 1 (mild) or 2 (markedly present). The Cogn… Show more

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Cited by 42 publications
(40 citation statements)
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“…The modified Kral procedure can provide a more objective assessment only for facilitatory paratonia. Even if rarely considered for the clinical assessment of cognitive impairment, paratonia shows a higher correlation with a number of cognitive tests as compared to primitive reflexes (Beversdorf and Heilman 1998;Damasceno et al 2005). Moreover, even if a neuropsychological examination is helpful to detect and describe cognitive dysfunction, many tests are influenced by educational factors, motivation and in some cases, malingering (Strauss et al 2006).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…The modified Kral procedure can provide a more objective assessment only for facilitatory paratonia. Even if rarely considered for the clinical assessment of cognitive impairment, paratonia shows a higher correlation with a number of cognitive tests as compared to primitive reflexes (Beversdorf and Heilman 1998;Damasceno et al 2005). Moreover, even if a neuropsychological examination is helpful to detect and describe cognitive dysfunction, many tests are influenced by educational factors, motivation and in some cases, malingering (Strauss et al 2006).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…These two types of paratonia have been originally described separately: Dupré described oppositional paratonia, later called "gegenhalten" (Dupré 1910), while almost 40 years later Kral (Kral 1949) described facilitatory paratonia or "mitgehen" (Mumenthaler 1990). Both types of paratonia have been associated with cognitive impairment or mental disorders (Dupré 1910;Beversdorf and Heilman 1998;Kurlan et al 2000;Bennett et al 2002;Damasceno et al 2005;Vahia et al 2007). After many years paratonia remains a poorly understood concept.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…A prevalência e o significado patológico dos reflexos primitivos no adulto, bem como sua relação com a idade e a cognição, são questões controversas 33 . O idoso normal pode apresentar reflexos primitivos, mas de forma isolada 34 .…”
Section: Retrogênese Neurológicaunclassified
“…Damasceno et al 33 estudaram a relação entre reflexos primitivos e cognição em 30 pacientes com DA e 154 sujeitos normais. Eles observaram que o reflexo de preensão e sinal de Babinski, ou a presença de mais de três sinais primitivos, particularmente a combinação de paratonia e reflexos muxoxo, sucção e palmomentoniano, são sugestivos de disfunção cerebral, especialmente quando esses sinais são acentuados e acompanhados de déficits de orientação, evocação, fluência verbal e praxia construcional 33 .…”
Section: Retrogênese Neurológicaunclassified
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