The yearly and monthly mean variations in the clear-sky shortwave aerosol direct radiative forcings are estimated over Coastal India (CI), the Arabian Sea (AS), and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) during winter monsoon seasons of 1996-2000. The 5-year mean TOA forcings are estimated to be À10, À9, and À4 W m À2 over CI, AS, and TIO. Surface (SFC) forcings are estimated to be À29, À22, and À5 W m À2 over CI, AS, and TIO, respectively. Atmosphere absorptions are quite large over CI and AS at +19 and +13 W m À2 …
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