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“…Kootstra et al also tested fumaric acid, another weak dicarboxylic acid, which displayed a stabilizing effect on arabinose, reducing its degradation. Fumaric acid is also an isomer of maleic acid formed during heat treatment of maleic acid . Oxalic acid is assumed to follow the same catalysis mechanisms as maleic acid, given the proximity to maleic acid in terms of structural and acidic characteristics.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
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“…Kootstra et al also tested fumaric acid, another weak dicarboxylic acid, which displayed a stabilizing effect on arabinose, reducing its degradation. Fumaric acid is also an isomer of maleic acid formed during heat treatment of maleic acid . Oxalic acid is assumed to follow the same catalysis mechanisms as maleic acid, given the proximity to maleic acid in terms of structural and acidic characteristics.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…At temperatures above 130°C, maleic acid isomerizes to fumaric acid (p K a = 3.0 and 4.4) or hydrates into malic acid (p K a = 3.4 and 5.2) . Fumaric acid is suggested as an alternative to sulfuric acid due to reduced formation of fermentation inhibitors (furfural) compared to sulfuric acid .…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…It is striking that at shorter, less acidic pretreatments, there appears to be a small drop in acid loss when the temperature is raised from 130° to around 150°C (max drop is about 0.95 €/Mg straw). This may be explained by an increase of the amount of liquid that is pressed out (results not shown), while the duration of the pretreatment was not long enough to allow for extensive maleic acid degradation (mostly isomerization into fumaric acid) during the time of the pretreatment [ 44 , 45 ]. When pretreatments are performed with more acid for longer time, more acid is degraded, no longer resulting in this reduction of acid costs around 150°C.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…work has been done on the synthesis of fumaric acid, and many laboratory methods for its preparation are given in the literature. For example, it may be made by heating halogen-substituted succinic acids (11), by condensing malonic with glyoxylic acid in the presence of pyridine (19), from tartaric acid by reduction (55), by conversion from maleic acid (61,68), and by boiling maleic acid with sodium hydroxide solution (SI). Industrially it has been prepared from maleic acid which is produced by the catalytic oxidation of benzene (21, 22,67,71,72), and also as a by-product in the manufacture of phthalic anhydride.…”
Section: Muchmentioning
“…Since the experiments of Rust (45,68) in polymerizing and copolymerizing maleic esters suggest interesting possibilities, somewhat similar tests were made with the glycol esters of fumaric acid.…”
Section: Condensation Of Fumaric Acid With Glycolsmentioning