volume 167, issue 10, P849-867 2019
DOI: 10.1111/eea.12838
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Andri Visser, Hannalene Plessis, Annemie Erasmus, Johnnie Van den Berg

Abstract: Abstract The sustainability of genetically engineered insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) maize, Zea mays L. (Poaceae), is threatened by the evolution of resistance by target pest species. Several Lepidoptera species have evolved resistance to Cry proteins expressed by Bt maize over the last decade, including the African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The insect resistance management (IRM) strategy (i.e., the high‐dose/refuge strategy) deployed to delay resis…

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