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“…a 'progress variable' (c [15][16][17] or sensible enthalpy [10]) or a 'reaction progress parameter' λ [18] [in [15], a third additional property, the scalar dissipation rate χ, is also considered]. In the literature, many definitions appear for the progress variable, including: reduced temperature [18], sensible enthalpy [10] or a linear combination of species mass fractions [16,17,[19][20][21]. In the present study, we refer to the latter with the symbol Y c and choose [19,22] leads to a better monotonicity of temperature and species in regions where CO 2 decomposes into CO, but this does not affect the observations in the study at hand (not shown).…”

confidence: 99%

“…a 'progress variable' (c [15][16][17] or sensible enthalpy [10]) or a 'reaction progress parameter' λ [18] [in [15], a third additional property, the scalar dissipation rate χ, is also considered]. In the literature, many definitions appear for the progress variable, including: reduced temperature [18], sensible enthalpy [10] or a linear combination of species mass fractions [16,17,[19][20][21]. In the present study, we refer to the latter with the symbol Y c and choose [19,22] leads to a better monotonicity of temperature and species in regions where CO 2 decomposes into CO, but this does not affect the observations in the study at hand (not shown).…”

confidence: 99%

“…However, at some point the modeling of the mean or filtered value, and possibly the variance, of c or λ is required. The transport equations for these quantities contain non-negligible terms that are harder to model than the corresponding terms in the standard transport equations for Y c [21,29]. In [21], in the context of LES, solving the transport equation for λ is avoided by assuming a 'statistically most likely distribution' for P (λ).…”

confidence: 99%

“…The Eulerian Stochastic Fields [4] and Flamelet/Progress Variable (FPV) [5] methods have been used to predict extinction in the Sandia piloted jet flames. The Multiple Mapping Closure (MMC) method, which can be thought of as combining elements of PDF and CMC modelling and is able to predict partial extinctions, has also been successfully applied to the Sandia flames [6].…”

confidence: 99%