2021
DOI: 10.3390/polym13030319 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is the richest by-product (85%) of the beer-brewing industry, that can be upcycled in a plentiful of applications, from animal feed, bioethanol production or for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanical, physical and structural properties of particleboard manufactured with a mixture of wood particles and BSG gradually added/replacement in 10%, 30% and 50%, glued with polymeric diisocyanate (pMDI), urea-formaldehyde (UF) and me… Show more

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“…On the other hand, the composition of BSG makes it an auspicious raw material for the manufacturing of polymer composites. Moreover, the relatively similar composition was noted for other by-products applied as fillers for wood-polymer composites (WPCs) and raw materials for plywood or particleboards, such as wood flour or other agricultural wastes [12][13][14]. The presence of proteins may provide additional properties to the composite materials because they may act as plasticizers or take part in the Maillard reactions resulting in the generation of melanoidins [15].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Barbu et al [165] introduced BSG into particleboards as a partial replacement of wood, which is a common trend in the case of wood-polymer composites [166][167][168]. The appearance of BSG without additional treatment (presented in Fig.…”
Section: Liquefaction Considering Other More Direct Uses Of Brewers' Spent Grain In Polymer Technology In Our Previousmentioning
“…Studies that included wood waste or residues for the production of particleboard have been carried out for more than three decades. Researchers investigated the properties of particleboards made from decayed wood and bark [26], pine needle litter [27], sunflower stalks [28], sunflower seed husks [29], almond shells [30], walnut and hazelnut shells [31], brewer's spent grain [32], pruned branches [33] and wood chip wastes [34,35]. Rowell (2014) [6,24] analyzed the utilization of wood shavings waste (Populus euroamericana and Eucalyptus grandis) for the production of particleboards [1].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The physicomechanical properties of particleboards, except their technological parameters, depend significantly on the characteristics of the raw materials used in their production [ 1 ]. These are the type and amount of the adhesive system used for their bonding, the type of the raw material, its degree of fragmentation and geometry (size and shape), and moisture content [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. The right choice of the moisture content of the particles, independently of their fineness degree, is also necessary for assuring the correct industrial process of particleboards.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The use of natural, bio-based adhesives as partial or complete substitutes of the traditional thermosetting resins is a perspective approach to achieve this goal [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. The use of natural binders has another environmental effect, namely the utilization of residual natural resources from other industries [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning