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“…Recent work has quantified some of these effects and in fact suggested that emulsion stability is due to high elasticity of the interface [49]. Although asphaltenes alone can stabilize emulsions [50], some of the most stable emulsions result when both asphaltenes and solids are used as stabilizers [12,27]. Sztukowski and Yarranton speculated that asphaltenes lend rigidity to interfaces, while solids prevent bridging among water droplets [29].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Recent work has quantified some of these effects and in fact suggested that emulsion stability is due to high elasticity of the interface [49]. Although asphaltenes alone can stabilize emulsions [50], some of the most stable emulsions result when both asphaltenes and solids are used as stabilizers [12,27]. Sztukowski and Yarranton speculated that asphaltenes lend rigidity to interfaces, while solids prevent bridging among water droplets [29].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Usually, solids capable of stabilizing emulsions are in the submicrometer to micrometer range [15,26,27]. The solids associated with oilfield emulsions are generally less than 1 µm in diameter [13].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Various studies have tried to demonstrate that the physico-chemical mechanism of action of dehydrating agents or demulsifiers is associated with the optimal formulation is expressed as the difference of affinity of the surfactant for the oil and water phase, numerically defined as Surfactant Affinity Difference (SAD), or hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD) [26]. These expressions are more sophisticated versions of the classical and more imprecise hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) which do not take into account the temperature and the hydrophilic nature [27,28].…”
Section: Study Of Breaking Of O/w Emulsionsmentioning
“…The nonionic surfactants consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO) groups and polypropylene oxide (PPO) groups are currently most widely used in oil industry. Zaki et al [12] found that phenylenediamine or naphthylamine-based EO/PO copolymers as demulsifiers had better performance than other demulsifiers such as nonaromatic amine-based EO/PO copolymer in demulsifying water-in-benzene emulsion. The demulsification efficiency depends on not only the stability of crude oil emulsion and also the structure of demulsifier [13][14][15][16] .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning