DOI: 10.1109/plasma.2004.1339887
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R.F. Benson, V.A. Osherovich, J. Fainberg, B.W. Reinisch

Abstract: A new plasma wave mode has been proposed to explain plasma emissions stimulated by satellite-borne high-power radio-frequency sounders designed to derive remote electron density profiles from electromagnetic-wave echoes. These sounders also generate electrostatic waves that produce coherent echoes (called plasma resonances because of their appearance on the data records) that occur near harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency f,,, the electron plasma fiequency f, . , and the upper-hybrid frequency fuh, …

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