Information on the different species that compose a weed community is essential for plant protection managements in production systems, which should include not only flora identification and diversity assessments, but morphological and ecophysiological aspects that can to show the potential effect of the agrosystem and guide the conduction of weed control strategies. Therefore, the objective of this work was to conduct a floristic and phytosociological surveying to identify the grouping patterns of weed populations in vineyards in the Petrolina-Juazeiro irrigated perimeter, in the Sub-Mid São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. The absolute and relative values of weed frequency, density, abundance, importance value index, population distribution level, and similarity between areas were evaluated in five properties. A high diversity of species of the families Poaceae, Malvaceae, and Asteraceae were found. The most important species found were Commelina benghalensis, Euphorbia hirta, and Cyperus aggregatus. The distribution of populations was mainly in aggregate and highly aggregate forms.