Many lycaenid butterfly species have interactions with ants, with 12% obligatorily depending on two sequential sources of larval food, namely host plants and host ants. When host plants are abundant but the density of host ant nests is relatively low, most host plants have no host ant nest in their vicinity and are thus unsuitable for larval survival. Obligatorily myrmecophilous female butterflies, whose caterpillars feed on ant larvae, would have a comparative advantage if they deposit eggs on host …
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