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“…Our results demonstrate much greater flexibility in the evolutionary response of eyespot sizes compared with color composition, despite the fact that both are characteristics of the same serially repeated color pattern elements on the wings of B. anynana . One explanation for this pattern is that the developmental pathways that regulate production of the focal signal (and determine eyespot size; [ 50 , 51 , 63 ]) are much more flexible and more easily decoupled across a wing surface than the pathways that regulate the threshold level of response to signal concentrations (and determine eyespot color composition; [ 52 , 53 , 64 , 65 ]). Each eyespot-competent area along the wing margin produces its own eyespot organizer [ 51 , 66 ].…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
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“…Our results demonstrate much greater flexibility in the evolutionary response of eyespot sizes compared with color composition, despite the fact that both are characteristics of the same serially repeated color pattern elements on the wings of B. anynana . One explanation for this pattern is that the developmental pathways that regulate production of the focal signal (and determine eyespot size; [ 50 , 51 , 63 ]) are much more flexible and more easily decoupled across a wing surface than the pathways that regulate the threshold level of response to signal concentrations (and determine eyespot color composition; [ 52 , 53 , 64 , 65 ]). Each eyespot-competent area along the wing margin produces its own eyespot organizer [ 51 , 66 ].…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…Selection targeted pairs of eyespots on two wing surfaces that differ in both morphology and ecological function. Eyespots on the dorsal [ 48 ] and ventral [ 47 ] wing surfaces are thought to function differently in B. anynana ; however, all eyespots are determined by similar spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression [ 63 , 72 ] regardless of their location. This shared development appears to play a primary role in shaping covariation and strongly integrating eyespots among all wing surfaces in Nymphalid butterflies [ 44 , 73 - 76 ], although functional differentiation of some wing characters can also affect patterns of covariation [ 77 ].…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…In my laboratory we are working to transform a second butterfly species, Junonia (Precis) coenia , the North American buckeye butterfly, in the family Nymphalidae. This will be useful because J. coenia is already among the most advanced butterfly model systems for understanding lepidopteran color patterns, with numerous gene expression patterns (Carroll et al 1994; Keys et al 1999) and mutants (Nijhout and Rountree 1995; Rountree and Nijhout 1995; Weatherbee et al 1999) already described.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…A total of 19 adult butterflies showed hindwing-to-forewing color pattern transformations, not only replicating the effects of Hindsight on the ventral posterior hindwings but also extending to the dorsal surface and to the anterior compartments ( Supplementary Figures 2-4). Scales of the J. coenia ventral hindwing are normally serrated, contrasting with the rounded shape of their forewing homologs, which allows the delineation of homeotic clones, as in the Hindsight mutants (Nijhout and Rountree, 1995;Weatherbee et al, 1999). For all the pattern elements besides the eyespots, homeotic clones induced a color shift in a cell autonomous fashion, with mutant scale patches showing sharp demarcation from non-mutant scales (Figure 1).…”
Section: Cell-autonomous Homeotic Effects Of Ubx Loss-of-function In mentioning
“…In Lepidoptera, two lines of evidence have confirmed the role of Ubx as a homeotic selector gene specifying T3/hindwing identity. A spontaneous mutation called Hindsight, isolated from a Junonia coenia laboratory colony, causes mosaic patches of forewing color pattern and scale identities on the ventral side of butterfly hindwings (Nijhout and Rountree, 1995;Weatherbee et al, 1999). It is unclear if Hindsight is caused by a mutation at the Ubx locus itself, but it induces dominant somatic clones that lack Ubx expression during development, and its restriction to the more posterior region of the T3 appendage is somewhat reminiscent of the Postbithorax and bithoraxoid alleles at the Drosophila Ubx locus, which result in clonal homeotic transformations of the posterior haltere (Adler, 1979(Adler, , 1981.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning