Aging remains the most pervasive risk factor for a wide range of chronic diseases that afflict modern societies. In the United States alone, incidence of age-related diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, cancer, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and osteoarthritis) is on the rise, posing an unsustainable socioeconomic burden even for the most developed countries. Tackling each and every age-related disease alone is proving to be costly and ineffective. The emerging field of geroscience has posed itself as an interdisciplinary approach that aims to understand the relationship between the biology of aging and the pathophysiology of chronic age-related diseases. According to the geroscience concept, aging is the single major risk factor that underlies several age-related chronic diseases, and manipulation of cellular and systemic aging processes can delay the manifestation and/or severity of these age-related chronic pathologies. The goal of this endeavor is to achieve health improvements by preventing/delaying the pathogenesis of several age-related diseases simultaneously in the elderly population by targeting key cellular and molecular processes of aging instead of managing diseases of aging as they arise individually. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of geroscience, highlighting their implications for potential future therapeutic targets and the associated scientific challenges and opportunities that lay ahead.