1995
DOI: 10.1021/bi00008a008 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium requires five genes: vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, and vanX. The functions and mechanism of four gene products have been known, with VanR/S for signal transduction and transcriptional regulation and VanH/A to synthesize D-Ala-D-lactate. But the function of the fifth gene product, VanX, has been unknown until very recently, when Reynolds and colleagues discovered D-, D-dipeptidase activity in crude extracts of a VanX overproducer [Reynolds, P. E., et al. (1994) Mol. Micro… Show more

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“…As part of the D-Ala-D-Lac type resistance mechanism, the VanX enzyme shows 10 5 -fold higher catalytic efficiency against D-Ala-D-Ala compared with D-Ala-D-Lac substrates, thus facilitating accumulation of the depsipeptide. However, VanX retains significant activity against D-Ala-D-Ser dipeptide (9). Appropriate to its role in resistance, the VanY enzyme shows carboxypeptidase activity against pentapeptide[D-Ala] but lacks activity against D,D-dipeptide substrates (5,10).…”
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“…As part of the D-Ala-D-Lac type resistance mechanism, the VanX enzyme shows 10 5 -fold higher catalytic efficiency against D-Ala-D-Ala compared with D-Ala-D-Lac substrates, thus facilitating accumulation of the depsipeptide. However, VanX retains significant activity against D-Ala-D-Ser dipeptide (9). Appropriate to its role in resistance, the VanY enzyme shows carboxypeptidase activity against pentapeptide[D-Ala] but lacks activity against D,D-dipeptide substrates (5,10).…”
mentioning
“…Under normal conditions of peptidoglycan synthesis in enterococci.two molecule of D-alanine are joined by a ligase enzyme to form D-Ala-Ala,which is then added to UPD-Nacetylymuramyl-tripeptide to form the UPD-N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide.TheUDP-Nacetylmuramyl-pentapeptide,when incorporated into the nascent peptidoglycan(transcosylation),permits the formation cross bridges(transpeptidation) and contributes to the strength of peptidoglycan layer [24].Vancomycin binds with high affinity to the D-Ala-D-Ala termini of the pentapeptide precurcor units,blocking their addition the growing peptidoglycan chain and preventing subsequent cross linking [25].…”
Section: Resistance Mechanisms and Genetic Classificationmentioning
“…d-Amino acid-specific enzymes have already been reported from a variety of microbial sources [1,2,7,28,29]. Among these enzymes, d-stereospecific amino acid amidase [2] is known to catalyze the hydrolysis of d-amino acid amides to yield d-amino acid and ammonia.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning