Transverse ridges on the surfaces of catastrophic mass flow deposits such as landslides, debris flows, and lahars may be the remnants of surface waves that originated during transit. Such waves can form as a result of a flow instability or from irregularities or pulses in the release of material at the source. We first consider a steady state release of material into the flow. By considering classic fluid dynamic stability criteria, we show that flow instabilities known to lead to roll waves seem likely f…
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