Resources (energy expenses) that can be devoted to progeny are always limited. Optimal resource allocation theory predicts that parents should allocate resources to their offspring in portions that maximise their own fitness returns per unit invested, not the fitness of the offspring. Females of solitary, nest-constructing bees control the key features of offspring fitness by determining both body size and sex of each individual. Therefore the sexual size dimorphic red mason bee, Osmia bicornis (L.) [= Osmia …
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