2007 **Abstract:** One of the most important parameters defining the angular resolution of an X-ray optical module is its Half-Energy Width (HEW) as a function of the photon energy. Future X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities (SIMBOL-X, Constellation-X, NeXT, EDGE, XEUS,…) should be characterized by a very good angular resolution in soft (< 10 keV) and hard (> 10 keV) X-rays. As a consequence, an important point in the optics development for these telescopes is the simulation of the achievable HEW for a system of X-ray mir…

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“…The approximate validity of this assumption is also proven in another paper of this volume 26 . Notice that the effect of the average over the effective areas is a partial compensation of the HEW divergence, because the mirror shells with the largest incidence angles (that enhance the XRS) have also the lowest energy cut-off in the reflectivity.…”

confidence: 57%

“…The approximate validity of this assumption is also proven in another paper of this volume 26 . Notice that the effect of the average over the effective areas is a partial compensation of the HEW divergence, because the mirror shells with the largest incidence angles (that enhance the XRS) have also the lowest energy cut-off in the reflectivity.…”

confidence: 57%

“…where we omitted the explicit dependence on λ to simplify the notation. Indeed, we demonstrated [17] that such an average would lead to an overestimate of HEW T . A more detailed approach, based on a first-order expansion of the k th PSF normalized to 1, S k , around the k th half-energy radius, Ω k , suggests that the formula to be used is [17] !…”

confidence: 82%

“…This correction was not accounted for in previous simulations [17] of the XEUS mirror module. This, in turn, caused an overestimate of the previously simulated HEW for XEUS.…”

confidence: 99%

“…For example, in Fig. 8 we can see the comparison of two mandrel surface PSD with the roughness tolerance as derived from the HEW requirements for SIMBOL-X (HEW < 20 arcsec at 30 keV), following the approach proposed in a previous SPIE volume [6] . The PSD of the mandrel 291 is very close to the mirror roughness PSD tolerance.…”

confidence: 99%

“…A degradation of the smoothness level has become apparent from the PSD comparison after 2 and 4 replicae, especially in the spectral regime 100 -1 µm, which turns out to be crucial in determining the HEW degradation due to X-ray scattering [6] . We have then measured the change of surface roughness introduced by the replication of an Au-coated X-ray mirror shell prototype.…”

confidence: 99%