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Cited by 59 publications
(43 citation statements)
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“…The dimensionless ratios N and were inferred from the asymptotic form of the size e!ects for small specimens in torsion and bending. Similar size e!ects have been observed in human bone; the e!ective shear modulus appeared more than four times larger in slender specimens than in thick ones [25]. The predictive power of generalized continuum mechanics is illustrated by the fact that elastic constants derived from size e!ect measurements allow one to correctly predict strain distributions in bone [26].…”
Section: Rs Lakes / International Journal Of Mechanical Sciences 00mentioning
confidence: 60%
“…The dimensionless ratios N and were inferred from the asymptotic form of the size e!ects for small specimens in torsion and bending. Similar size e!ects have been observed in human bone; the e!ective shear modulus appeared more than four times larger in slender specimens than in thick ones [25]. The predictive power of generalized continuum mechanics is illustrated by the fact that elastic constants derived from size e!ect measurements allow one to correctly predict strain distributions in bone [26].…”
Section: Rs Lakes / International Journal Of Mechanical Sciences 00mentioning
confidence: 60%
“…The apparent shear modulus of slender specimens exceeded that of whole bone by a factor of about four. These size effects have been explained in a continuum view by Cosserat elasticity and in a structural view by the heterogeneity in stiffness in human bone as a fibrous composite, and in bovine bone as a laminated composite (Lakes 1995). Since the RUS lowest mode involved torsion resonance, while ultrasonic transmission testing involved wave propagation of the specimen, there is a strain gradient difference in the comparison of these methods.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…Another experiment was presented in [31], where the authors showed that smaller bone specimens considered as a Cosserat elastic continuum had a higher apparent stiffness than thick ones under prolonged torsional load. The Cosserat theory of elasticity accurately fits the experimental data for the effective stiffness of the bone samples from the smallest (osteon) to the whole femur bone [29].…”
Section: Development Of the Cosserat Theory Of Elasticitymentioning
confidence: 69%
“…The classical theory of elasticity is not capable of explaining this fact. A rigorous study of the size-effect in the Cosserat media was done by R. Lakes et al in [29,11,12,30,31]. In particular, the authors showed that slender cylinders appeared more more stiffly in torsion tests than expected from the classical elasticity.…”
Section: Development Of the Cosserat Theory Of Elasticitymentioning
confidence: 99%