Eddy-forced meridional circulation and the corresponding surface pressure change associated with the month-to-month variability of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) are examined in the framework of Eulerian mean dynamics and are compared with the AO-like variability associated with stratospheric vacillation known as the Polar-night Jet Oscillation (PJO). Surface signals associated with both the AO and the AO-like variability associated with the PJO are produced through the eddy-forced meridional circulation. In…
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