1996
DOI: 10.1590/s0104-79301996000100004 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: We have already shown the presence of guanidine neurotoxins in calcareous red algae and mussels collected in the São Sebastião channel (State of São Paulo, Brazil). It is known that these neurotoxins comprise more than 25 analogues such as tetrodotoxin (TTX) and derivatives plus the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) found in a variety of marine, freshwater and amphibious species. Filter feeding animals generally possess large amounts of these neurotoxins. The tunicates are sessil marine animals with a high rate… Show more

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“…Based on the data provided by this research, it can be concluded that, due to their longer DA retention and higher accumulation rate, Queen scallops are sentinel species more suitable for DA monitoring than oysters. Even though the presence of hydrophilic paralytic shellfish toxins and ASP phycotoxins in ascidians has been recorded, even in high concentrations that could pose a threat to human health [50][51][52], data provided by this study reveal that ascidians accumulate DA in significantly lower concentrations than oysters and scallops.…”
Section: Domoic Acid In Bivalves and Ascidiansmentioning
“…However, according to previous reports [20][21][22]33,34] the four types of ascidian spicules found in the stomach contents of Z. aeneus could be classified into two genera (Lissoclinum and Trididemnum). It is relevant to note that toxic ascidians have been reported; STXs were found in Microcosmus vulgaris and Holocynthia roretzi, and STXs and TTX in Phallusia nigra [35][36][37]. The toxicity of the genera Lissoclinum and Trididemnum are unknown, but Lissoclinum ascidian spicules (As-4) were predominant, and GTX group toxins were detected in the stomach contents of the crabs collected from the STXs-rich NW zone, whereas only a few Lissoclinum ascidian spicules were found and no STXs were detected (possibly below the detection limit) in the stomach contents of the crabs collected from the STXs-poor CTR zone, suggesting that Lissoclinum ascidians are a source of the STXs.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Of the 24 toxic individuals, nine individuals (No. 29,35,36,[39][40][41]45, 48, and 53) contained both STXs and TTX (a lower number of crabs containing both toxins in the appendages compared with those collected in 2018), while ten individuals (No. 30-34, 37, 44, 46, 51, and 52) contained only STXs, and five individuals (No.…”
Section: Toxin Profile Of Z Aeneus Collected In 2019mentioning
“…Regarding TTX‐contaminated Tunicates, the available records in the literature are those of Freitas et al. (1996) and Salvitti (2015) (Table 2) involving species harvested, respectively, in Brazil and New Zealand, but in Europe so far, these organisms have not been reported to contain TTXs.…”
Section: Ttx Presence In Live Bivalve Mollusks and Causative Factors ...mentioning
“…There is a report in the literature on the contamination of sea figs of the genus Microcosmus with saxitoxins (STXs) [ 1 ]. Others Tunicates were also found to be contaminated with marine biotoxins such as STXs and tetrodotoxin [ 2 ] or domoic acid (DA) [ 3 ].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning