Bariatric surgery (BS) is effective in treating morbid obesity, but the impact of prior BS on candidacy for liver transplantation (LT) is unclear. We examined 78 patients with cirrhosis with prior BS compared with a concurrent cohort of 156 patients matched by age, Model for End‐Stage Liver Disease score, and underlying liver disease. We compared rates of transplant denial after evaluation, delisting on the waiting list, and survival after LT. The median time from BS to LT evaluation was 7 years. Roux‐en‐Y gastric bypass was the most common BS procedure performed (63% of cohort). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was the leading etiology for liver cirrhosis (47%). Delisting/death on the waiting list was higher among patients with BS (33.3% versus 10.1%; P = 0.002), and the transplantation rate was lower (48.9% versus 65.2%; P = 0.03). Intention‐to‐treat (ITT) survival from listing to 1 year after LT was lower in the BS cohort versus concurrent cohort (1‐year survival, 84% versus 90%; P = 0.05). On adjusted analysis, a history of BS was associated with an increased risk of death on the waiting list (hazard ratio [HR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2‐15.1), but this impact was attenuated (HR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.8‐13.4) by the presence of malnutrition. When limited to matched controls by sex, mortality attributed to BS was no longer significant for females (P = 0.37) but was significant for males (P = 0.046). Sarcopenia, as captured by skeletal muscle index, was calculated in a subset of patients (n = 49). The total skeletal surface area was lower in the BS group (127 [105‐141] cm2 versus 153 [131‐191] cm2; P = 0.005). Rates of sarcopenia were higher among patients delisted after listing (71.4% versus 16.7%; P = 0.04). In conclusion, a history of BS was associated with higher rates of delisting on the waiting list as well as lower survival from the time of listing on ITT analysis. Presence of malnutrition and sarcopenia among patients with BS may contribute to worse outcomes.