Ventilation of the boundary layer has an important effect on regional air quality and the long-range transport of pollutants and their chemistry, as well as climate change. It is very difficult to quantify the ventilation of the polluted boundary-layer air in field experiments because sources are not well known and there are many mechanisms that can contribute to the ventilation. In frontal cyclones ventilation can occur by advection by the large-scale flow, slantwise and upright convection, and turbulent…
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