Chaetosphaeriaceae is one of the largest families in Sordariomycetes that commonly found on decaying leaf, fruit, branch, bark and wood in both terrestrial and submerged environment in nature. This paper reports our research result of diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny of anamorphic Chaetosphaeriaceae in China, which is based on a systematic study with an integrated approach of morphological observation and phylogenetic analysis for a large collection (>1300 herbarium specimens and 1177 living strains). The family Chaetosphaeriaceae is further expanded to accomendate 89 accepted genera, including 22 new genera and 10 newly assigned genera. Most of these genera (except for Chaetosphaeria and several other relatively large genera) are delimitated as monophyletic genera with well-defined diagnostic characters in morphology. The phylogenetic connection of non-phialidic Sporidesmium -like fungi with the family is further confirmed and expanded to 10 different genera. The polyphyletic Codinaea / Dictyochaeta/Tainosphaeria complex is further resolved with a taxonomic framework of 28 monophyletic genera by redelimitation of Codinaea and Dictyochaeta with narrow concept, acceptance of the 16 established genera, and finally introduction of 10 new genera. Chloridium is phylogenetically redefined as monophyletic genus with narrow concept as typified by the type species, a systematic review in both generic and species level is still needed. For biodiversity of chaetosphaeriaceous fungi, a total of 372 species in 76 genera, including 126 new species, 48 new combinations, and 1 new name, are documented. The identification keys are provided for most genera, especially the large genera such as Codinaea , Codinaeella , Stilbochaeta , Cryptophiale , Thozetella , Dinemasporium and Pseudolachnella . In addition, ten known species were excluded from the family and reclassified. One of the future research area for this family should be the systematic revision of several relatively large polyphyletic genera, including Bahusutrabeeja , Ellisembia , Stanjehughesia , Cacumisporium , Chaetosphaeria , Chloridium , Craspedodidymum , Cryptophiale, Cryptophialoidea , Dictyochaetopsis , Minimidochium , and many published species of Codinaea and Dictyochaeta .