volume 93, issue 8, P1236-1242 1998
DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.00402.x
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D A Katzka, R M Gideon, D O Castell

Abstract: 1) Cardia acid exposure is present at a level intermediate between that of the esophagus and stomach; it is most commonly transient but may be continuous, similar to the stomach. 2) Refluxed esophageal acid originates from a pool of acid distal to the cardia that then bathes the cardia in sustained, repetitive, or single acid exposures and occasionally travels into the esophagus.