Stellar Atmospheres: Beyond Classical Models 1991 Help me understand this report

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2001

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“…Such horizontal transfer e †ects are the result of the smoothing e †ect associated to the existing source function Ñuctuations (Spiegel 1960 ;Kneer & Trujillo Bueno 1987) and to the channeling e †ect associated to the existing opacity Ñuctuations (Cannon 1970 ;Trujillo Bueno & Kneer 1990). In a full three-dimensional radiative transfer investigation it will certainly be of interest to take into account the inÑuence of the Doppler shifts of the line radiation Ðelds (due to the velocity Ðeld of the threedimensional model) on the atomic level populations (Cannon 1985 ;Nordlund 1991 ;see also Shine 1975). The interested reader may obtain some additional information about horizontal radiative transfer e †ects from the threedimensional multilevel transfer calculations of Fabiani Bendicho & Trujillo Bueno (1999).…”

confidence: 99%

“…Such horizontal transfer e †ects are the result of the smoothing e †ect associated to the existing source function Ñuctuations (Spiegel 1960 ;Kneer & Trujillo Bueno 1987) and to the channeling e †ect associated to the existing opacity Ñuctuations (Cannon 1970 ;Trujillo Bueno & Kneer 1990). In a full three-dimensional radiative transfer investigation it will certainly be of interest to take into account the inÑuence of the Doppler shifts of the line radiation Ðelds (due to the velocity Ðeld of the threedimensional model) on the atomic level populations (Cannon 1985 ;Nordlund 1991 ;see also Shine 1975). The interested reader may obtain some additional information about horizontal radiative transfer e †ects from the threedimensional multilevel transfer calculations of Fabiani Bendicho & Trujillo Bueno (1999).…”

confidence: 99%

“…) in the atmospheres of cool stars can presently be achieved by applying the code MUGA-3D, a multilevel radiative transfer three-dimensional code (see Fabiani Bendicho & Trujillo Bueno 1999) based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme that Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995) developed for RT applications. In order to undertake such a three-dimensional RT investigation for iron using as input the aforementioned threedimensional hydrodynamic stellar photospheric model, it is Ðrst important to investigate carefully the NLTE iron line formation issue neglecting the e †ects of horizontal RT (see for a review on this topic ; see also Nordlund 1991). This is the goal of the present paper as a preliminary step that we make prior to describing the aforementioned full three-dimensional multilevel transfer simulations.…”

confidence: 99%

“…In this Letter, we carry out a three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the solar wind formation starting from the solar upper convection zone. To emulate the small-scale dynamo and wave excitations near the photosphere, we extend the established convection model (Nordlund 1984;Stein & Nordlund 1998;Nordlund et al 2009), which is almost parameter free except the domain size or numerical resolution. This model has been extended to study the dynamics in the chromosphere and corona (Gudiksen et al 2011;Iijima & Yokoyama 2017;Rempel 2017).…”

confidence: 99%