Abstract:Perimenopause is a mandatory period in women's life, when the medical staff may initiate hormone therapy with sex steroids for the delay of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, during the so-called "window of opportunity." Animals' models are helpful to sustain the still controversial results of human clinical observational and/or randomized controlled studies. Estrogens, progesterone, and androgens, with their nuclear and membrane receptors, genes, and epigenetics, with their connections to cholinergic… Show more
“…The other hypothesis is the healthy cell bias of estrogen benefit. It assures that estrogen-only therapy shows its neuroprotective benefit when applied to the healthy neuron, and no beneficial effect was observed on neurons with mitochondrial damage [ 93 ].…”
The brain is a sexually dimorphic organ that implies different functions and structures depending on sex. Current pharmacological approaches against different neurological diseases act distinctly in male and female brains. In all neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sex-related outcomes regarding pathogenesis, prevalence, and response to treatments indicate that sex differences are important for precise diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. Pathogenesis of AD includes vascular dementia, and in most cases, this is accompanied by metabolic complications with similar features as those assembled in diabetes. This review discusses how AD-associated dementia and diabetes affect cognition in relation to sex difference, as both diseases share similar pathological mechanisms. We highlight potential protective strategies to mitigate amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathogenesis, emphasizing how these drugs act in the male and female brains.
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