Stefanie Knopp, Peter Steinmann, Christoph Hatz, Jennifer Keiser, Jürg Utzinger
Abstract:More than 150 million people, mainly in developing countries, are affected by filarial nematode infections that cause debilitating and disfiguring diseases. Although transmission is restricted to the tropics and subtropics, imported infections sometimes occur in Europe and North America among immigrants and refugees from endemic countries, and rarely among long-term travelers. This article reviews the epidemiology of the most important human filarial nematodes, their current distribution, life cycles, clinical…
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