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“…The government maintained a direct legal vigilance and control over the labour movement so as to curb disruptions on inflows of FDI, and to ensure steady growth and economic sustainability . Although there are evidential traces that MNCs demanded a policy of trade union containment (Bhopal and Todd ; Kuruvilla and Arudsothy ), the state implemented policies and aspects within its industrialization strategies that made the unionization of workers relatively difficult so as to avoid threats by MNCs of any reallocation of business to other Asian nations. For example, the state sanctions only ‘in‐house’ unions for workers in the electronics industry, denies them access to minimum wage legislation and places restrictions on collective bargaining.…”
Section: The Malaysian Trade Union Movement and Industrial Relations mentioning
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“…The government maintained a direct legal vigilance and control over the labour movement so as to curb disruptions on inflows of FDI, and to ensure steady growth and economic sustainability . Although there are evidential traces that MNCs demanded a policy of trade union containment (Bhopal and Todd ; Kuruvilla and Arudsothy ), the state implemented policies and aspects within its industrialization strategies that made the unionization of workers relatively difficult so as to avoid threats by MNCs of any reallocation of business to other Asian nations. For example, the state sanctions only ‘in‐house’ unions for workers in the electronics industry, denies them access to minimum wage legislation and places restrictions on collective bargaining.…”
Section: The Malaysian Trade Union Movement and Industrial Relations mentioning
“…The ISI and EOI strategies also led to rapid structural changes in the Malaysian economy that altered the composition of labour force and trade union membership. Employment rose in manufacturing and service sectors while traditional sectors such as agriculture and mining declined (Bhopal and Todd ). Similar trends seem to continue in view of the fact that the average percentage of employment recorded in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, construction and services for the 2000–09 period were 13.41, 0.4, 27.98, 7.28 and 50.93 respectively.…”
Section: The Malaysian Trade Union Movement and Industrial Relations mentioning
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“…Nonetheless, the lack of allocation of funds for research and development in the MNCs in Malaysia has deprived opportunities to enhance domestic innovative ability (Adnan and Ali, 1990). Other areas of study in the MNCs focus on human resource management practices (Kuruvilla, 1996;Smith and Abdullah, 2004), trade unions and industrial relations (Bhopal and Todd, 2000), ethnicity Bhopal, 2005, 2006) and transferability of Japanese management practices to Malaysia (Hooi, 1997(Hooi, , 1999(Hooi, , 2001(Hooi, , 2002(Hooi, , 2006(Hooi, , 2008aRaduan, 2002;Thome and McAuley, 1992;Wolfe and Arnold, 1994).…”
Section: Technical Training In Mncsmentioning
“…In some cases, the sources of capability require acceptance of higher entry costs [5]. And there is evidence (Bhopal and Todd, 2000) that some country of origin effect may be perceived in terms of the specific application of flexibilisation demands on the part of different MNCs.…”
Section: G'local Structure and Agency Interactionsmentioning