2016
DOI: 10.1038/nrm.2016.7
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Abstract: Satellite cells are adult myogenic stem cells that function to repair damaged muscle. The enduring capacity for muscle regeneration requires efficient satellite cell expansion after injury, differentiation to produce myoblasts that can reconstitute damaged fibers, and self-renewal to replenish the muscle stem cell pool for subsequent rounds of injury and repair. Emerging studies indicate that misregulations of satellite cell fate and function contribute to age-associated muscle dysfunction and influence the se… Show more

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Cited by 215 publications
(233 citation statements)
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References 148 publications
(234 reference statements)
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“…During the same time period, we also observed a switch from high to low expression of lysine demethylase 6A ( Kdm6a or Utx ), which regulates removal of the repressive H3K27me3chromatin mark (Faralli et al., 2016), to low to high expression of a component of a histone methyltransferase complex ( Ash2l ). Ash2l is part of the Trithorax complex that specifically methylates the fourth lysine residue of histone H3 (H3K4) and is targeted by Pax7 to activate Myf5 target genes (Almada and Wagers, 2016). Combining these dynamics suggests that in the early time period, upregulated TFs and chromatin remodelers help to establish a more accessible chromatin state at myogenic loci, which is consistent with the increase in enrichments of H3K4me3, H3K4me1, and H3K27ac.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…During the same time period, we also observed a switch from high to low expression of lysine demethylase 6A ( Kdm6a or Utx ), which regulates removal of the repressive H3K27me3chromatin mark (Faralli et al., 2016), to low to high expression of a component of a histone methyltransferase complex ( Ash2l ). Ash2l is part of the Trithorax complex that specifically methylates the fourth lysine residue of histone H3 (H3K4) and is targeted by Pax7 to activate Myf5 target genes (Almada and Wagers, 2016). Combining these dynamics suggests that in the early time period, upregulated TFs and chromatin remodelers help to establish a more accessible chromatin state at myogenic loci, which is consistent with the increase in enrichments of H3K4me3, H3K4me1, and H3K27ac.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Satellite cells (SCs) are adult myogenic stem cells, residing in a specialized niche between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of individual myofibers, and their activation, proliferation, and differentiation are critical for muscle regeneration after injury [36,37]. However, it has been reported that lack of dystrophin affects SC polarity and asymmetric division as well as the ability to enter the myogenic program, thus contributing to the severity of disease [35,38]. In addition, prolonged muscle degeneration and chronic inflammation impair satellite cell activity and enhance fat and fibrotic tissue replacement [39,40].…”
Section: Continuous Cycles Of Myofiber Degeneration and Regenerationmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Indeed, dystrophic satellite cells undergo extensive mitosis with a small population of progenitors contributing to the effective muscle repair [38,41]. In particular, accordingly with the elevated levels of paired box 7 (Pax7) expression in both DMD patients and mdx mice [42,43], cultured myoblasts from dystrophic muscles showed an increased number of Pax7-positive cells not expressing Myf5 (Myogenic factor 5) and a reduction of myogenin-differentiating cells [38,41]. Since dystrophin is expressed in activated satellite cells, dystrophin-deficient SCs display impaired polarity, abnormal division, and altered differentiation [41].…”
Section: Continuous Cycles Of Myofiber Degeneration and Regenerationmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…25 Following stress to muscle tissue, which can be induced by weight bearing or trauma from an injury, SCs will become activated and begin differentiation into myoblasts. 26 These myoblasts will undergo multiple rounds of division prior to terminal differentiation into mononuclear myocytes that fuse together to form myofibrils.…”
Section: Kip1mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…During activation many cell-intrinsic factors are expressed including Myf5. 25 After injury a large majority of SCs differentiate into myoblasts; therefore, the remaining cells must undergo self-renewal to replenish the progenitor cell population. The cells in this stage display few cellintrinsic factors (Pax7, Spry1, and Foxo3).…”
Section: Kip1mentioning
confidence: 99%