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Cited by 64 publications
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References 29 publications
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“…The advantage to this approach was that the passive properties of the limb could be modeled directly using recently published comprehen sive data (Reiner and Edrich, 1999), while still repre senting the passive coupling between joints due to passive forces in biarticular muscles. We numerically simulated to what extent this rearrangement of muscle passive elements may have influenced the response of an active muscle to constant velocity stretch (Cole et al, 1996b). We found a small (o5%), but constant difference and concluded that this limitation would not influence our results.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 86%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…The advantage to this approach was that the passive properties of the limb could be modeled directly using recently published comprehen sive data (Reiner and Edrich, 1999), while still repre senting the passive coupling between joints due to passive forces in biarticular muscles. We numerically simulated to what extent this rearrangement of muscle passive elements may have influenced the response of an active muscle to constant velocity stretch (Cole et al, 1996b). We found a small (o5%), but constant difference and concluded that this limitation would not influence our results.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 86%
“…On the other hand, a previous model which incorporated Hill-based muscle properties (Cap pon et al, 1999) at an activation level of only 30% exhibited a similar peak ankle force to that of our panic braking model (100% activation), but this was a simulation of toepan intrusion rather than deceleration. Furthermore, the model of Cappon et al (1999) did not include a SEE, which could have resulted in infinite short-range muscle stiffness (Cole et al, 1996b) and overestimation of impact forces.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…the PE and CE are in parallel, with the SE in series to the combination of the first two. This type of muscle model has been used in the works of Zahalak [141,142], Cole [23] and Van den Bogert [127]. Another model suggested by Zulliger [148] has all three components in parallel with each other (5.8(b)).…”
Section: Constitutive Model For Skeletal Musclementioning
confidence: 99%
“…Another more simplistic muscle model is suggested in the works of Cole [23], and Malhotra [83]. In this model the parallel element is assumed to be insignificant, and is omitted completely.…”
Section: Constitutive Model For Skeletal Musclementioning
confidence: 99%
“…In vivo experiments are not feasible, and experiments with cadavers or crash dummies have the limitation that mechanical properties of active muscles are not simulated. These muscle properties can cause substantially increased skeletal tension both from increased activation and from rapid stretching during impact due to the force-velocity and force-length relationships inherent in active muscle tissue [19]. Experiments with crash dummies and cadavers are also disadvantageous due to time and monetary cost.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%