Health and lifespan are influenced by dietary nutrients, whose balance is dependent on the supply or demand of each organism. Many studies have shown that an increased carbohydrate–lipid intake plays a critical role in metabolic dysregulation, which impacts longevity. Caenorhabditis elegans has been successfully used as an in vivo model to study the effects of several factors, such as genetic, environmental, diet, and lifestyle factors, on the molecular mechanisms that have been linked to healthspan, lifespan, and the aging process. There is evidence showing the causative effects of high glucose on lifespan in different diabetic models; however, the precise biological mechanisms affected by dietary nutrients, specifically carbohydrates and lipids, as well as their links with lifespan and longevity, remain unknown. Here, we provide an overview of the deleterious effects caused by high-carbohydrate and high-lipid diets, as well as the molecular signals that affect the lifespan of C. elegans; thus, understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of high-glucose- and lipid-induced changes in whole organisms would allow the targeting of key regulatory factors to ameliorate metabolic disorders and age-related diseases.