2021
DOI: 10.20900/immunometab20210017
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Abstract: Billions of cells undergo apoptosis daily and are swiftly removed by macrophages through an evolutionarily conserved program termed “efferocytosis”. Consequently, macromolecules within an apoptotic cell significantly burden a phagocyte with nutrients, such as lipids, oligonucleotides, and amino acids. In response to this nutrient overload, metabolic reprogramming must occur for the process of efferocytosis to remain non-phlogistic and to execute successive rounds of efferocytosis. The inability to undergo meta… Show more

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Cited by 8 publications
(17 citation statements)
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References 153 publications
(158 reference statements)
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“…In contrast to acylcarnitines, increased circulating glycine levels are linked to protections in clinical and experimental atherosclerosis 9,32,33 , and enhanced glycine levels increase circulating levels of acylglycines 34 . These fatty acid-conjugated amino acids, particularly acylcarnitines, are critical for transporting fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane 35 , and the presence of these fatty acid-conjugated amino acids in stable plaques is in line with enhancements in fatty acid oxidation, an atheroprotective metabolic pathway 4,5 .…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…There is a growing interest in elucidating the mechanisms that govern plaque instability, which has so far highlighted the role of dysregulations in lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism [4][5][6][7][8][9] . Impairments in metabolism play a critical role in all stages of atherosclerosis, from its inception as a benign fatty streak to the precipitation of acute clinical events.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Furthermore, arginine from ACs is exported from the phagolysosome by PQLC2, a lysosomal cationic amino acid exporter (Figure 2). Then, in a Rac1‐dependent manner, arginine is metabolized to putrescine, stimulating effective efferocytosis for multiple ACs 116 . Putrescine enhances efferocytosis via increasing Rac1 activation mediated by Dbl (Rac1 guanosine triphosphate [GTP]‐exchange factor) 74 .…”
Section: Main Steps In Efferocytosismentioning
confidence: 99%
“…After ingestion of the apoptotic cells, cellular contents are lysed and processed in the phagosomes of the macrophages, ultimately producing signal molecules that control macrophage functions [ 56 ] ( Figure 2 ). The study of the metabolites that shape immune response towards apoptotic cells is a new field of immunometabolism, recently termed as “efferotabolism” (efferocytosis-associated metabolism) [ 57 ]. Here, I review the possible metabolites of the apoptotic adipocytes that potentially control ATM behavior.…”
Section: Adipocyte Apoptosis Ignites Inflammationmentioning
confidence: 99%