MSC have been used in diverse animal disease models to investigate their regenerative capacity. Although the clinical outcome was often encouraging, the mode of action of the cells remains unresolved. Differentiation of MSC into cell types of their target organs was only rarely shown, with the exception of the musculoskeletal system. Thus, the effect of the cells on the clinical outcome in several disease models of tissue degeneration must be independent of transdifferentiation and caused by indirect or parac…
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