Abstract:The neuropeptide ␣-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (␣-MSH) inhibits inflammation by down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-␣ (TNF-␣) in leukocytes via stimulation of ␣-MSH cell surface receptors. However, the signaling mechanism of ␣-MSH action has not yet been clearly elucidated. Here, we have investigated signaling pathways by which ␣-MSH inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-␣ production in leukocytes such as THP-1 cells. We focused on the possible r… Show more
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