Abstract:A thermal steam stimulation process, such as steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), induces water-in-oil emulsion of heavy oil or bitumen throughout the production. The present study investigated the effects of in-situ emulsification in the oil sands reservoir for SAGD process. The viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions produced were measured with respect to water-oil ratio (W/O), shear rates, pressures and temperatures. The results therefore were employed to develop the numerical model of viscosity …
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