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“…where p(x, z) is the joint probability function of x and z, p(z) is the marginal probability distribution of z, Z is the set of z, and X is the set of [32,Theorem 8.6.5]. This is the main reason why Gaussian signaling is widely adopted in the literature of covert communications (e.g., [3], [10]). Noting that the elements of x are i.i.d.…”

confidence: 99%

“…where p(x, z) is the joint probability function of x and z, p(z) is the marginal probability distribution of z, Z is the set of z, and X is the set of [32,Theorem 8.6.5]. This is the main reason why Gaussian signaling is widely adopted in the literature of covert communications (e.g., [3], [10]). Noting that the elements of x are i.i.d.…”

confidence: 99%

“…However, the achieved covertness by spread spectrum has never been proven theoretically, because there is no fundamental understanding on when or how often spread spectrum fails to hide wireless transmissions. As such, recent cutting-edge research on wireless communication security has focused on the fundamental limits of covert communications (e.g., [3], [8]- [10]). In covert communications, a transmitter (Alice) desires to transmit information to a legitimate receiver (Bob) without being detected by a warden (Willie), who is collecting observations to detect this transmission.…”

confidence: 99%

“…The achievability of the square root law (SRL) was established in [5] where in order to achieve covert communication over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, Alice can only transmit no more than O ( √ n) bits to Bob in n channel uses. Moreover, the SRL results have been verified in discrete memoryless channels (DMCs) [7], [8], two-hop systems [9], multiple access channels [10] and broadcast channels [11]. In short, these results imply that the average number of covert bits per channel use asymptotically approaches zero despite the noiseless transmission, i.e., lim n→∞ O ( √ n)/n = 0.…”

confidence: 86%

“…The work [6] proposed that achieving covert communications by adopted channel inversion power control with Rayleigh fading channels. Some recent works [14,16,17] considered the two-hop scenario and analyzed its effects on the covert communication performance in terms of detection error probability of warden and covert capacity. Note that these works on the performance of covert communication mainly focus on the two scenarios of one hop or two-hop with the help of a single relay.…”

confidence: 99%