DOI: 10.1111/eea.12808
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Kelley Leung, Louis Zande, Leo W. Beukeboom

Abstract: In hymenopterans, males are normally haploid (1n) and females diploid (2n), but individuals with divergent ploidy levels are frequently found. In species with ‘complementary sex determination’ (CSD), increasing numbers of diploid males that are often infertile or unviable arise from inbreeding, presenting a major impediment to biocontrol breeding. Non‐CSD species, which are common in some parasitoid wasp taxa, do not produce polyploids through inbreeding. Nevertheless, polyploidy also occurs in non‐CSD Hymenop…

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