Basic psychology training in Brazil has been the subject of research and criticism. This study investigated the perception of students about the domain of professional competences acquired during the undergraduate course. The research had a multilevel and longitudinal design with three successive collections, during 6 semesters, contemplating 213 students (84% women) from the State of Maranhão, from two institutions, one public (13%) and one private (87%). The questionnaire contained 21 skills for the psychology undergraduate course defined by the Curriculum Guidelines of the Ministry of Education. The analyses were conducted by a multilevel modeling for longitudinal data, specifically a multilevel model of repeated measures, with time being considered the first level of analysis and the individuals the second level. The results indicated a homogeneous evolution in the competences in the dimensions scientific research skills, individual psychological processes, and psychological group and organizational processes. Participation in college extension activities had significant effects on these three dimensions, while the professional internship did not influence any of them. The participation in scientific research initiation projects was a predictor exclusively of the domain of scientific research competences. The results suggest the need for reflection on undergraduate courses in psychology, with changes in the projects of scientific research initiation and internship.