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“…Nineteen markers were attached to the landmarks 2,3) : 1) midpoint between right and left iliac crests, 2) right and 3) left acromia, 4) right and 5) left heads of radius, 6) right and 7) left styloid processes of radius, 8) right and 9) left 3rd knuckles, 10) right and 11) left greater trochanters of femur, 12) right and 13) left condyles of tibia, 14) right and 15) left lateral malleoli, 16) right and 17) left 2nd toes, 18) right top corner of luggage and 19) bottom center of luggage.…”

confidence: 99%

“…Nineteen markers were attached to the landmarks 2,3) : 1) midpoint between right and left iliac crests, 2) right and 3) left acromia, 4) right and 5) left heads of radius, 6) right and 7) left styloid processes of radius, 8) right and 9) left 3rd knuckles, 10) right and 11) left greater trochanters of femur, 12) right and 13) left condyles of tibia, 14) right and 15) left lateral malleoli, 16) right and 17) left 2nd toes, 18) right top corner of luggage and 19) bottom center of luggage.…”

confidence: 99%

“…The human model was assumed to have 15 rigid segments: 1) head/trunk including head, neck, thorax and abdomen, 2) pelvis, 3) right and 4) left upper arms, 5) right and 6) left forearms, 7) right and 8) left hands, 9) right and 10) left thighs, 11) right and 12) left shanks, 13) right and 14) left feet and 15) luggage. Thus, it had 14 joints whose centers were estimated from marker positions 2,[6][7][8] A global reference system, X, Y, and Z, and a local reference systems, x, y, and z, for each segment were employed by a Cartesian coordinate system. The positive directions of the X, Y, and Z axes were anterior, cranial and right lateral, respectively.…”

confidence: 99%

“…∆y, can then be calculated as ∆y = r ( 1 -sin(τ)) where τ = 270 o -α -β. α and β are the rotations in the SC-joint and AC-joint, respectively (Moeslund, 2003). r is approximately equal to 10.4% of the length of the upper arm (Leva, 1996). That is,…”

confidence: 99%

“…The gravitational force of his (her) arm and the jig were compensated by a balance weight. The weight of the subject's arm and hand was calculated from his (her) weight, and the length of his (her) arms and hands (8) (9) . The subject could flex and extend his (her) elbow joint in the vertical plane.…”

confidence: 99%