volume 29, issue 9, P1231-1233 1996
DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(96)00021-8
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Abstract: Mathematical models of the human body are indispensable tools for studying the biomechanics of human movement. The geometrical centers of the 12 main joints (shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees ankles), modeled as simple mechanical joints, are widely used as reference points for building mathematical models of the human body. These reference points, typically defined as "joint centers", are assumed to maintain a fixed 3D position relative to both the segments forming the joint, throughout the range of joint…

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