DOI: 10.1109/plasma.2004.1339944
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P.T. Chupikov, D.V. Medvedev, I.N. Onishchenko, N.I. Onishchenko, B.D. Panasenko, Yu.V. Prokopenko, S.S. Pushkarev, R.J. Faehl, A.M. Yegorov

Abstract: Thermionic emission mechanism is well known for ahout a century and it is widely seen in the fields of both vacuum electronic sources and semiconductor electronics. The emission process is described by the Richardson-Dushman equation as follows.