DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.90467
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Ljiljana R. Cander, Bruno Zolesi

Abstract: Ionospheric monitoring and modeling in costal and marine environment is reviewed and characterized in terms of state of art, global, regional, and local issues across different domains of solar-terrestrial conditions for practical applications. Their effects on critical technological systems are either controlled by the Earth's ionosphere, as in telecommunications and information systems, or simply influenced by its variability, as in trans-ionospheric radio communication, and navigation systems. The evolution…

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